# 3.1. Quickstart¶

Lets assume we have created a project directory and already have a Haskell module or two.

Every project needs a name, we’ll call this example “proglet”.

$cd proglet/$ ls
Proglet.hs


It is assumed that (apart from external dependencies) all the files that make up a package live under a common project root directory. This simple example has all the project files in one directory, but most packages will use one or more subdirectories.

To turn this into a Cabal package we need two extra files in the project’s root directory:

• proglet.cabal: containing package metadata and build information.
• Setup.hs: usually containing a few standardized lines of code, but can be customized if necessary.

We can create both files manually or we can use cabal init to create them for us.

## 3.1.1. Using “cabal init”¶

The cabal init command is interactive. It asks us a number of questions starting with the package name and version.

$cabal init Package name [default "proglet"]? Package version [default "0.1"]? ...  It also asks questions about various other bits of package metadata. For a package that you never intend to distribute to others, these fields can be left blank. One of the important questions is whether the package contains a library or an executable. Libraries are collections of Haskell modules that can be re-used by other Haskell libraries and programs, while executables are standalone programs. What does the package build: 1) Library 2) Executable Your choice?  For the moment these are the only choices. For more complex packages (e.g. a library and multiple executables or test suites) the .cabal file can be edited afterwards. Finally, cabal init creates the initial proglet.cabal and Setup.hs files, and depending on your choice of license, a LICENSE file as well. Generating LICENSE... Generating Setup.hs... Generating proglet.cabal... You may want to edit the .cabal file and add a Description field.  As this stage the proglet.cabal is not quite complete and before you are able to build the package you will need to edit the file and add some build information about the library or executable. ## 3.1.2. Editing the .cabal file¶ Load up the .cabal file in a text editor. The first part of the .cabal file has the package metadata and towards the end of the file you will find the executable or library section. You will see that the fields that have yet to be filled in are commented out. Cabal files use “--” Haskell-style comment syntax. (Note that comments are only allowed on lines on their own. Trailing comments on other lines are not allowed because they could be confused with program options.) If you selected earlier to create a library package then your .cabal file will have a section that looks like this: library exposed-modules: Proglet -- other-modules: -- build-depends:  Alternatively, if you selected an executable then there will be a section like: executable proglet -- main-is: -- other-modules: -- build-depends:  The build information fields listed (but commented out) are just the few most important and common fields. There are many others that are covered later in this chapter. Most of the build information fields are the same between libraries and executables. The difference is that libraries have a number of “exposed” modules that make up the public interface of the library, while executables have a file containing a Main module. The name of a library always matches the name of the package, so it is not specified in the library section. Executables often follow the name of the package too, but this is not required and the name is given explicitly. ## 3.1.3. Modules included in the package¶ For a library, cabal init looks in the project directory for files that look like Haskell modules and adds all the modules to the library:exposed-modules field. For modules that do not form part of your package’s public interface, you can move those modules to the other-modules field. Either way, all modules in the library need to be listed. For an executable, cabal init does not try to guess which file contains your program’s Main module. You will need to fill in the executable:main-is field with the file name of your program’s Main module (including .hs or .lhs extension). Other modules included in the executable should be listed in the other-modules field. ## 3.1.4. Modules imported from other packages¶ While your library or executable may include a number of modules, it almost certainly also imports a number of external modules from the standard libraries or other pre-packaged libraries. (These other libraries are of course just Cabal packages that contain a library.) You have to list all of the library packages that your library or executable imports modules from. Or to put it another way: you have to list all the other packages that your package depends on. For example, suppose the example Proglet module imports the module Data.Map. The Data.Map module comes from the containers package, so we must list it: library exposed-modules: Proglet other-modules: build-depends: containers, base == 4.*  In addition, almost every package also depends on the base library package because it exports the standard Prelude module plus other basic modules like Data.List. You will notice that we have listed base == 4.*. This gives a constraint on the version of the base package that our package will work with. The most common kinds of constraints are: • pkgname >= n • pkgname ^>= n (since Cabal 2.0) • pkgname >= n && < m • pkgname == n.* (since Cabal 1.6) The last is just shorthand, for example base == 4.* means exactly the same thing as base >= 4 && < 5. Please refer to the documentation on the build-depends field for more information. Also, you can factor out shared build-depends (and other fields such as ghc-options) into a common stanza which you can import in your libraries and executable sections. For example: common shared-properties default-language: Haskell2010 build-depends: base == 4.* ghc-options: -Wall library import: shared-properties exposed-modules: Proglet  Note that the import must be the first thing in the stanza. For more information see the Common stanzas section. ## 3.1.5. Building the package¶ For simple packages that’s it! We can now try configuring and building the package: $ cabal configure
$cabal build  Assuming those two steps worked then you can also install the package: $ cabal install


For libraries this makes them available for use in GHCi or to be used by other packages. For executables it installs the program so that you can run it (though you may first need to adjust your system’s $PATH). ## 3.1.6. Next steps¶ What we have covered so far should be enough for very simple packages that you use on your own system. The next few sections cover more details needed for more complex packages and details needed for distributing packages to other people. The previous chapter covers building and installing packages – your own packages or ones developed by other people. # 3.2. Package concepts¶ Before diving into the details of writing packages it helps to understand a bit about packages in the Haskell world and the particular approach that Cabal takes. ## 3.2.1. The point of packages¶ Packages are a mechanism for organising and distributing code. Packages are particularly suited for “programming in the large”, that is building big systems by using and re-using code written by different people at different times. People organise code into packages based on functionality and dependencies. Social factors are also important: most packages have a single author, or a relatively small team of authors. Packages are also used for distribution: the idea is that a package can be created in one place and be moved to a different computer and be usable in that different environment. There are a surprising number of details that have to be got right for this to work, and a good package system helps to simplify this process and make it reliable. Packages come in two main flavours: libraries of reusable code, and complete programs. Libraries present a code interface, an API, while programs can be run directly. In the Haskell world, library packages expose a set of Haskell modules as their public interface. Cabal packages can contain a library or executables or both. Some programming languages have packages as a builtin language concept. For example in Java, a package provides a local namespace for types and other definitions. In the Haskell world, packages are not a part of the language itself. Haskell programs consist of a number of modules, and packages just provide a way to partition the modules into sets of related functionality. Thus the choice of module names in Haskell is still important, even when using packages. ## 3.2.2. Package names and versions¶ All packages have a name, e.g. “HUnit”. Package names are assumed to be unique. Cabal package names may contain letters, numbers and hyphens, but not spaces and may also not contain a hyphened section consisting of only numbers. The namespace for Cabal packages is flat, not hierarchical. Packages also have a version, e.g “1.1”. This matches the typical way in which packages are developed. Strictly speaking, each version of a package is independent, but usually they are very similar. Cabal package versions follow the conventional numeric style, consisting of a sequence of digits such as “1.0.1” or “2.0”. There are a range of common conventions for “versioning” packages, that is giving some meaning to the version number in terms of changes in the package, such as e.g. SemVer; however, for packages intended to be distributed via Hackage Haskell’s Package Versioning Policy applies (see also the PVP/SemVer FAQ section). The combination of package name and version is called the package ID and is written with a hyphen to separate the name and version, e.g. “HUnit-1.1”. For Cabal packages, the combination of the package name and version uniquely identifies each package. Or to put it another way: two packages with the same name and version are considered to be the same. Strictly speaking, the package ID only identifies each Cabal source package; the same Cabal source package can be configured and built in different ways. There is a separate installed package ID that uniquely identifies each installed package instance. Most of the time however, users need not be aware of this detail. ## 3.2.3. Kinds of package: Cabal vs GHC vs system¶ It can be slightly confusing at first because there are various different notions of package floating around. Fortunately the details are not very complicated. Cabal packages Cabal packages are really source packages. That is they contain Haskell (and sometimes C) source code. Cabal packages can be compiled to produce GHC packages. They can also be translated into operating system packages. GHC packages This is GHC’s view on packages. GHC only cares about library packages, not executables. Library packages have to be registered with GHC for them to be available in GHCi or to be used when compiling other programs or packages. The low-level tool ghc-pkg is used to register GHC packages and to get information on what packages are currently registered. You never need to make GHC packages manually. When you build and install a Cabal package containing a library then it gets registered with GHC automatically. Haskell implementations other than GHC have essentially the same concept of registered packages. For the most part, Cabal hides the slight differences. Operating system packages On operating systems like Linux and Mac OS X, the system has a specific notion of a package and there are tools for installing and managing packages. The Cabal package format is designed to allow Cabal packages to be translated, mostly-automatically, into operating system packages. They are usually translated 1:1, that is a single Cabal package becomes a single system package. It is also possible to make Windows installers from Cabal packages, though this is typically done for a program together with all of its library dependencies, rather than packaging each library separately. ## 3.2.4. Unit of distribution¶ The Cabal package is the unit of distribution. What this means is that each Cabal package can be distributed on its own in source or binary form. Of course there may dependencies between packages, but there is usually a degree of flexibility in which versions of packages can work together so distributing them independently makes sense. It is perhaps easiest to see what being “the unit of distribution” means by contrast to an alternative approach. Many projects are made up of several interdependent packages and during development these might all be kept under one common directory tree and be built and tested together. When it comes to distribution however, rather than distributing them all together in a single tarball, it is required that they each be distributed independently in their own tarballs. Cabal’s approach is to say that if you can specify a dependency on a package then that package should be able to be distributed independently. Or to put it the other way round, if you want to distribute it as a single unit, then it should be a single package. ## 3.2.5. Explicit dependencies and automatic package management¶ Cabal takes the approach that all packages dependencies are specified explicitly and specified in a declarative way. The point is to enable automatic package management. This means tools like cabal can resolve dependencies and install a package plus all of its dependencies automatically. Alternatively, it is possible to mechanically (or mostly mechanically) translate Cabal packages into system packages and let the system package manager install dependencies automatically. It is important to track dependencies accurately so that packages can reliably be moved from one system to another system and still be able to build it there. Cabal is therefore relatively strict about specifying dependencies. For example Cabal’s default build system will not even let code build if it tries to import a module from a package that isn’t listed in the .cabal file, even if that package is actually installed. This helps to ensure that there are no “untracked dependencies” that could cause the code to fail to build on some other system. The explicit dependency approach is in contrast to the traditional “./configure” approach where instead of specifying dependencies declaratively, the ./configure script checks if the dependencies are present on the system. Some manual work is required to transform a ./configure based package into a Linux distribution package (or similar). This conversion work is usually done by people other than the package author(s). The practical effect of this is that only the most popular packages will benefit from automatic package management. Instead, Cabal forces the original author to specify the dependencies but the advantage is that every package can benefit from automatic package management. The “./configure” approach tends to encourage packages that adapt themselves to the environment in which they are built, for example by disabling optional features so that they can continue to work when a particular dependency is not available. This approach makes sense in a world where installing additional dependencies is a tiresome manual process and so minimising dependencies is important. The automatic package management view is that packages should just declare what they need and the package manager will take responsibility for ensuring that all the dependencies are installed. Sometimes of course optional features and optional dependencies do make sense. Cabal packages can have optional features and varying dependencies. These conditional dependencies are still specified in a declarative way however and remain compatible with automatic package management. The need to remain compatible with automatic package management means that Cabal’s conditional dependencies system is a bit less flexible than with the “./configure” approach. Note GNU autoconf places restrictions on paths, including the path that the user builds a package from. Package authors using build-type: configure should be aware of these restrictions; because users may be unexpectedly constrained and face mysterious errors, it is recommended that build-type: configure is only used where strictly necessary. ## 3.2.6. Portability¶ One of the purposes of Cabal is to make it easier to build packages on different platforms (operating systems and CPU architectures), with different compiler versions and indeed even with different Haskell implementations. (Yes, there are Haskell implementations other than GHC!) Cabal provides abstractions of features present in different Haskell implementations and wherever possible it is best to take advantage of these to increase portability. Where necessary however it is possible to use specific features of specific implementations. For example a package author can list in the package’s .cabal what language extensions the code uses. This allows Cabal to figure out if the language extension is supported by the Haskell implementation that the user picks. Additionally, certain language extensions such as Template Haskell require special handling from the build system and by listing the extension it provides the build system with enough information to do the right thing. Another similar example is linking with foreign libraries. Rather than specifying GHC flags directly, the package author can list the libraries that are needed and the build system will take care of using the right flags for the compiler. Additionally this makes it easier for tools to discover what system C libraries a package needs, which is useful for tracking dependencies on system libraries (e.g. when translating into Linux distribution packages). In fact both of these examples fall into the category of explicitly specifying dependencies. Not all dependencies are other Cabal packages. Foreign libraries are clearly another kind of dependency. It’s also possible to think of language extensions as dependencies: the package depends on a Haskell implementation that supports all those extensions. Where compiler-specific options are needed however, there is an “escape hatch” available. The developer can specify implementation-specific options and more generally there is a configuration mechanism to customise many aspects of how a package is built depending on the Haskell implementation, the operating system, computer architecture and user-specified configuration flags. # 3.3. Developing packages¶ The Cabal package is the unit of distribution. When installed, its purpose is to make available: • One or more Haskell programs. • At most one library, exposing a number of Haskell modules. However having both a library and executables in a package does not work very well; if the executables depend on the library, they must explicitly list all the modules they directly or indirectly import from that library. Fortunately, starting with Cabal 1.8.0.4, executables can also declare the package that they are in as a dependency, and Cabal will treat them as if they were in another package that depended on the library. Internally, the package may consist of much more than a bunch of Haskell modules: it may also have C source code and header files, source code meant for preprocessing, documentation, test cases, auxiliary tools etc. A package is identified by a globally-unique package name, which consists of one or more alphanumeric words separated by hyphens. To avoid ambiguity, each of these words should contain at least one letter. Chaos will result if two distinct packages with the same name are installed on the same system. A particular version of the package is distinguished by a version number, consisting of a sequence of one or more integers separated by dots. These can be combined to form a single text string called the package ID, using a hyphen to separate the name from the version, e.g. “HUnit-1.1”. Note Packages are not part of the Haskell language; they simply populate the hierarchical space of module names. In GHC 6.6 and later a program may contain multiple modules with the same name if they come from separate packages; in all other current Haskell systems packages may not overlap in the modules they provide, including hidden modules. ## 3.3.1. Creating a package¶ Suppose you have a directory hierarchy containing the source files that make up your package. You will need to add two more files to the root directory of the package: package-name.cabal a Unicode UTF-8 text file containing a package description. For details of the syntax of this file, see the section on package descriptions. Setup.hs a single-module Haskell program to perform various setup tasks (with the interface described in the section on Building and installing packages). This module should import only modules that will be present in all Haskell implementations, including modules of the Cabal library. The content of this file is determined by the build-type setting in the .cabal file. In most cases it will be trivial, calling on the Cabal library to do most of the work. Once you have these, you can create a source bundle of this directory for distribution. Building of the package is discussed in the section on Building and installing packages. One of the purposes of Cabal is to make it easier to build a package with different Haskell implementations. So it provides abstractions of features present in different Haskell implementations and wherever possible it is best to take advantage of these to increase portability. Where necessary however it is possible to use specific features of specific implementations. For example one of the pieces of information a package author can put in the package’s .cabal file is what language extensions the code uses. This is far preferable to specifying flags for a specific compiler as it allows Cabal to pick the right flags for the Haskell implementation that the user picks. It also allows Cabal to figure out if the language extension is even supported by the Haskell implementation that the user picks. Where compiler-specific options are needed however, there is an “escape hatch” available. The developer can specify implementation-specific options and more generally there is a configuration mechanism to customise many aspects of how a package is built depending on the Haskell implementation, the Operating system, computer architecture and user-specified configuration flags. name: Foo version: 1.0 library build-depends: base >= 4 && < 5 exposed-modules: Foo extensions: ForeignFunctionInterface ghc-options: -Wall if os(windows) build-depends: Win32 >= 2.1 && < 2.6  ### 3.3.1.1. Example: A package containing a simple library¶ The HUnit package contains a file HUnit.cabal containing: name: HUnit version: 1.1.1 synopsis: A unit testing framework for Haskell homepage: http://hunit.sourceforge.net/ category: Testing author: Dean Herington license: BSD3 license-file: LICENSE cabal-version: 1.12 build-type: Simple library build-depends: base >= 2 && < 4 exposed-modules: Test.HUnit.Base, Test.HUnit.Lang, Test.HUnit.Terminal, Test.HUnit.Text, Test.HUnit default-extensions: CPP  and the following Setup.hs: import Distribution.Simple main = defaultMain  ### 3.3.1.2. Example: A package containing executable programs¶ name: TestPackage version: 0.0 synopsis: Small package with two programs author: Angela Author license: BSD3 build-type: Simple cabal-version: >= 1.8 executable program1 build-depends: HUnit >= 1.1.1 && < 1.2 main-is: Main.hs hs-source-dirs: prog1 executable program2 main-is: Main.hs build-depends: HUnit >= 1.1.1 && < 1.2 hs-source-dirs: prog2 other-modules: Utils  with Setup.hs the same as above. ### 3.3.1.3. Example: A package containing a library and executable programs¶ name: TestPackage version: 0.0 synopsis: Package with library and two programs license: BSD3 author: Angela Author build-type: Simple cabal-version: >= 1.8 library build-depends: HUnit >= 1.1.1 && < 1.2 exposed-modules: A, B, C executable program1 main-is: Main.hs hs-source-dirs: prog1 other-modules: A, B executable program2 main-is: Main.hs hs-source-dirs: prog2 other-modules: A, C, Utils  with Setup.hs the same as above. Note that any library modules required (directly or indirectly) by an executable must be listed again. The trivial setup script used in these examples uses the simple build infrastructure provided by the Cabal library (see Distribution.Simple). The simplicity lies in its interface rather that its implementation. It automatically handles preprocessing with standard preprocessors, and builds packages for all the Haskell implementations. The simple build infrastructure can also handle packages where building is governed by system-dependent parameters, if you specify a little more (see the section on system-dependent parameters). A few packages require more elaborate solutions. ## 3.3.2. Package descriptions¶ The package description file must have a name ending in “.cabal”. It must be a Unicode text file encoded using valid UTF-8. There must be exactly one such file in the directory. The first part of the name is usually the package name, and some of the tools that operate on Cabal packages require this; specifically, Hackage rejects packages which don’t follow this rule. In the package description file, lines whose first non-whitespace characters are “--” are treated as comments and ignored. This file should contain of a number global property descriptions and several sections. • The package properties describe the package as a whole, such as name, license, author, etc. • Optionally, a number of configuration flags can be declared. These can be used to enable or disable certain features of a package. (see the section on configurations). • The (optional) library section specifies the library properties and relevant build information. • Following is an arbitrary number of executable sections which describe an executable program and relevant build information. Each section consists of a number of property descriptions in the form of field/value pairs, with a syntax roughly like mail message headers. • Case is not significant in field names, but is significant in field values. • To continue a field value, indent the next line relative to the field name. • Field names may be indented, but all field values in the same section must use the same indentation. • Tabs are not allowed as indentation characters due to a missing standard interpretation of tab width. • Before Cabal 3.0, to get a blank line in a field value, use an indented “. The syntax of the value depends on the field. Field types include: token, filename, directory Either a sequence of one or more non-space non-comma characters, or a quoted string in Haskell 98 lexical syntax. The latter can be used for escaping whitespace, for example: ghc-options: -Wall "-with-rtsopts=-T -I1". Unless otherwise stated, relative filenames and directories are interpreted from the package root directory. freeform, URL, address An arbitrary, uninterpreted string. identifier A letter followed by zero or more alphanumerics or underscores. compiler A compiler flavor (one of: GHC, UHC or LHC) followed by a version range. For example, GHC ==6.10.3, or LHC >=0.6 && <0.8. ### 3.3.2.1. Modules and preprocessors¶ Haskell module names listed in the library:exposed-modules and library:other-modules fields may correspond to Haskell source files, i.e. with names ending in “.hs” or “.lhs”, or to inputs for various Haskell preprocessors. The simple build infrastructure understands the extensions: • .gc (greencard) • .chs (c2hs) • .hsc (hsc2hs) • .y and .ly (happy) • .x (alex) • .cpphs (cpphs) When building, Cabal will automatically run the appropriate preprocessor and compile the Haskell module it produces. For the c2hs and hsc2hs preprocessors, Cabal will also automatically add, compile and link any C sources generated by the preprocessor (produced by hsc2hs’s #def feature or c2hs’s auto-generated wrapper functions). Dependencies on pre-processors are specified via the build-tools or build-tool-depends fields. Some fields take lists of values, which are optionally separated by commas, except for the build-depends field, where the commas are mandatory. Some fields are marked as required. All others are optional, and unless otherwise specified have empty default values. ### 3.3.2.2. Package properties¶ These fields may occur in the first top-level properties section and describe the package as a whole: name: package-name (required) The unique name of the package, without the version number. As pointed out in the section on package descriptions, some tools require the package-name specified for this field to match the package description’s file-name package-name.cabal. Package names are case-sensitive and must match the regular expression (i.e. alphanumeric “words” separated by dashes; each alphanumeric word must contain at least one letter): [[:digit:]]*[[:alpha:]][[:alnum:]]*(-[[:digit:]]*[[:alpha:]][[:alnum:]]*)*. Or, expressed in ABNF: package-name = package-name-part *("-" package-name-part) package-name-part = *DIGIT UALPHA *UALNUM UALNUM = UALPHA / DIGIT UALPHA = ... ; set of alphabetic Unicode code-points  Note Hackage restricts package names to the ASCII subset. version: numbers (required) The package version number, usually consisting of a sequence of natural numbers separated by dots, i.e. as the regular expression [0-9]+([.][0-9]+)* or expressed in ABNF: package-version = 1*DIGIT *("." 1*DIGIT)  cabal-version: x.y[.z] The version of the Cabal specification that this package description uses. The Cabal specification does slowly evolve (see also Package Description Format Specification History), introducing new features and occasionally changing the meaning of existing features. By specifying which version of the specification you are using it enables programs which process the package description to know what syntax to expect and what each part means. The version number you specify will affect both compatibility and behaviour. Most tools (including the Cabal library and the cabal program) understand a range of versions of the Cabal specification. Older tools will of course only work with older versions of the Cabal specification that was known at the time. Most of the time, tools that are too old will recognise this fact and produce a suitable error message. Likewise, cabal check will tell you whether the version number is sufficiently high for the features you use in the package description. As for behaviour, new versions of the Cabal specification can change the meaning of existing syntax. This means if you want to take advantage of the new meaning or behaviour then you must specify the newer Cabal version. Tools are expected to use the meaning and behaviour appropriate to the version given in the package description. In particular, the syntax of package descriptions changed significantly with Cabal version 1.2 and the cabal-version field is now required. Files written in the old syntax are still recognized, so if you require compatibility with very old Cabal versions then you may write your package description file using the old syntax. Please consult the user’s guide of an older Cabal version for a description of that syntax. Starting with cabal-version: 2.2 this field is only valid if fully contained in the very first line of a package description and ought to adhere to the ABNF grammar newstyle-spec-version-decl = "cabal-version" *WS ":" *WS newstyle-spec-version *WS newstyle-spec-version = NUM "." NUM [ "." NUM ] NUM = DIGIT0 / DIGITP 1*DIGIT0 DIGIT0 = %x30-39 DIGITP = %x31-39 WS = %20  Note For package descriptions using a format prior to cabal-version: 1.12 the legacy syntax resembling a version range syntax cabal-version: >= 1.10  needs to be used. This legacy syntax is supported up until cabal-version: >= 2.0 it is however strongly recommended to avoid using the legacy syntax. See also #4899. build-type: identifier Default value: Custom or Simple The type of build used by this package. Build types are the constructors of the BuildType type. This field is optional and when missing, its default value is inferred according to the following rules: If the build type is anything other than Custom, then the Setup.hs file must be exactly the standardized content discussed below. This is because in these cases, cabal will ignore the Setup.hs file completely, whereas other methods of package management, such as runhaskell Setup.hs [CMD], still rely on the Setup.hs file. For build type Simple, the contents of Setup.hs must be: import Distribution.Simple main = defaultMain  For build type Configure (see the section on system-dependent parameters below), the contents of Setup.hs must be: import Distribution.Simple main = defaultMainWithHooks autoconfUserHooks  For build type Make (see the section on more complex packages below), the contents of Setup.hs must be: import Distribution.Make main = defaultMain  For build type Custom, the file Setup.hs can be customized, and will be used both by cabal and other tools. For most packages, the build type Simple is sufficient. license: SPDX expression Default value: NONE The type of license under which this package is distributed. Starting with cabal-version: 2.2 the license field takes a (case-sensitive) SPDX expression such as license: Apache-2.0 AND (MIT OR GPL-2.0-or-later)  See SPDX IDs: How to use for more examples of SPDX expressions. The version of the list of SPDX license identifiers is a function of the cabal-version value as defined in the following table: Cabal specification version SPDX license list version cabal-version: 2.2 3.0 2017-12-28 cabal-version: 2.4 3.2 2018-07-10 Pre-SPDX Legacy Identifiers The license identifier in the table below are defined for cabal-version: 2.0 and previous versions of the Cabal specification. license identifier Note GPL GPL-2 GPL-3 LGPL LGPL-2.1 LGPL-3 AGPL AGPL-3 since 1.18 BSD2 since 1.20 BSD3 MIT ISC since 1.22 MPL-2.0 since 1.20 Apache Apache-2.0 PublicDomain AllRightsReserved OtherLicense license-file: filename license-files: filename list Since: Cabal 1.20 The name of a file(s) containing the precise copyright license for this package. The license file(s) will be installed with the package. If you have multiple license files then use the license-files field instead of (or in addition to) the license-file field. The content of a copyright notice, typically the name of the holder of the copyright on the package and the year(s) from which copyright is claimed. For example: copyright: (c) 2006-2007 Joe Bloggs  author: freeform The original author of the package. Remember that .cabal files are Unicode, using the UTF-8 encoding. maintainer: address The current maintainer or maintainers of the package. This is an e-mail address to which users should send bug reports, feature requests and patches. stability: freeform The stability level of the package, e.g. alpha, experimental, provisional, stable. homepage: URL The package homepage. bug-reports: URL The URL where users should direct bug reports. This would normally be either: • A mailto: URL, e.g. for a person or a mailing list. • An http: (or https:) URL for an online bug tracking system. For example Cabal itself uses a web-based bug tracking system bug-reports: https://github.com/haskell/cabal/issues  package-url: URL The location of a source bundle for the package. The distribution should be a Cabal package. synopsis: freeform A very short description of the package, for use in a table of packages. This is your headline, so keep it short (one line) but as informative as possible. Save space by not including the package name or saying it’s written in Haskell. description: freeform Description of the package. This may be several paragraphs, and should be aimed at a Haskell programmer who has never heard of your package before. For library packages, this field is used as prologue text by setup haddock and thus may contain the same markup as Haddock documentation comments. category: freeform A classification category for future use by the package catalogue Hackage. These categories have not yet been specified, but the upper levels of the module hierarchy make a good start. tested-with: compiler list A list of compilers and versions against which the package has been tested (or at least built). The value of this field is not used by Cabal and is rather intended as extra metadata for use by third party tooling, such as e.g. CI tooling. Here’s a typical usage example tested-with: GHC == 8.6.3, GHC == 8.4.4, GHC == 8.2.2, GHC == 8.0.2, GHC == 7.10.3, GHC == 7.8.4, GHC == 7.6.3, GHC == 7.4.2  which can (starting with Cabal 3.0) also be written using the more concise set notation syntax tested-with: GHC == { 8.6.3, 8.4.4, 8.2.2, 8.0.2, 7.10.3, 7.8.4, 7.6.3, 7.4.2 }  data-files: filename list A list of files to be installed for run-time use by the package. This is useful for packages that use a large amount of static data, such as tables of values or code templates. Cabal provides a way to find these files at run-time. A limited form of * wildcards in file names, for example data-files: images/*.png matches all the .png files in the images directory. data-files: audio/**/*.mp3 matches all the .mp3 files in the audio directory, including subdirectories. The specific limitations of this wildcard syntax are • * wildcards are only allowed in place of the file name, not in the directory name or file extension. It must replace the whole file name (e.g., *.html is allowed, but chapter-*.html is not). If a wildcard is used, it must be used with an extension, so data-files: data/* is not allowed. • Prior to Cabal 2.4, when matching a wildcard plus extension, a file’s full extension must match exactly, so *.gz matches foo.gz but not foo.tar.gz. This restriction has been lifted when cabal-version: 2.4 or greater so that *.gz does match foo.tar.gz • * wildcards will not match if the file name is empty (e.g., *.html will not match foo/.html). • ** wildcards can only appear as the final path component before the file name (e.g., data/**/images/*.jpg is not allowed). If a ** wildcard is used, then the file name must include a * wildcard (e.g., data/**/README.rst is not allowed). • A wildcard that does not match any files is an error. The reason for providing only a very limited form of wildcard is to concisely express the common case of a large number of related files of the same file type without making it too easy to accidentally include unwanted files. On efficiency: if you use ** patterns, the directory tree will be walked starting with the parent directory of the **. If that’s the root of the project, this might include .git/, dist-newstyle/, or other large directories! To avoid this behaviour, put the files that wildcards will match against in their own folder. ** wildcards are available starting in Cabal 2.4. data-dir: directory The directory where Cabal looks for data files to install, relative to the source directory. By default, Cabal will look in the source directory itself. extra-source-files: filename list A list of additional files to be included in source distributions built with setup sdist. As with data-files it can use a limited form of * wildcards in file names. extra-doc-files: filename list Since: Cabal 1.18 A list of additional files to be included in source distributions, and also copied to the html directory when Haddock documentation is generated. As with data-files it can use a limited form of * wildcards in file names. extra-tmp-files: filename list A list of additional files or directories to be removed by setup clean. These would typically be additional files created by additional hooks, such as the scheme described in the section on system-dependent parameters ### 3.3.2.3. Library¶ library name Build information for libraries. Currently, there can only be one publicly exposed library in a package, and its name is the same as package name set by global name field. In this case, the name argument to the library section must be omitted. Starting with Cabal 2.0, private internal sub-library components can be defined by using setting the name field to a name different from the current package’s name; see section on Internal Libraries for more information. The library section should contain the following fields: exposed-modules: identifier list Required: if this package contains a library A list of modules added by this package. virtual-modules: identifier list Since: Cabal 2.2 A list of virtual modules provided by this package. Virtual modules are modules without a source file. See for example the GHC.Prim module from the ghc-prim package. Modules listed here will not be built, but still end up in the list of exposed-modules in the installed package info when the package is registered in the package database. exposed: boolean Default value: True Some Haskell compilers (notably GHC) support the notion of packages being “exposed” or “hidden” which means the modules they provide can be easily imported without always having to specify which package they come from. However this only works effectively if the modules provided by all exposed packages do not overlap (otherwise a module import would be ambiguous). Almost all new libraries use hierarchical module names that do not clash, so it is very uncommon to have to use this field. However it may be necessary to set exposed: False for some old libraries that use a flat module namespace or where it is known that the exposed modules would clash with other common modules. visibility: visibilty specifiers :since 3.0 Default value: private for internal libraries. Cannot be set for public library. Cabal recognizes public and private here… Multiple public libraries… reexported-modules: exportlist Since: Cabal 1.22 Supported only in GHC 7.10 and later. A list of modules to reexport from this package. The syntax of this field is orig-pkg:Name as NewName to reexport module Name from orig-pkg with the new name NewName. We also support abbreviated versions of the syntax: if you omit as NewName, we’ll reexport without renaming; if you omit orig-pkg, then we will automatically figure out which package to reexport from, if it’s unambiguous. Reexported modules are useful for compatibility shims when a package has been split into multiple packages, and they have the useful property that if a package provides a module, and another package reexports it under the same name, these are not considered a conflict (as would be the case with a stub module.) They can also be used to resolve name conflicts. signatures: signature list Since: Cabal 2.0 Supported only in GHC 8.2 and later. A list of module signatures required by this package. Module signatures are part of the Backpack extension to the Haskell module system. Packages that do not export any modules and only export required signatures are called “signature-only packages”, and their signatures are subjected to signature thinning. The library section may also contain build information fields (see the section on build information). Internal Libraries Cabal 2.0 and later support “internal libraries”, which are extra named libraries (as opposed to the usual unnamed library section). For example, suppose that your test suite needs access to some internal modules in your library, which you do not otherwise want to export. You could put these modules in an internal library, which the main library and the test suite build-depends upon. Then your Cabal file might look something like this: cabal-version: 2.0 name: foo version: 0.1.0.0 license: BSD3 build-type: Simple library foo-internal exposed-modules: Foo.Internal -- NOTE: no explicit constraints on base needed -- as they're inherited from the 'library' stanza build-depends: base library exposed-modules: Foo.Public build-depends: foo-internal, base >= 4.3 && < 5 test-suite test-foo type: exitcode-stdio-1.0 main-is: test-foo.hs -- NOTE: no constraints on 'foo-internal' as same-package -- dependencies implicitly refer to the same package instance build-depends: foo-internal, base  Internal libraries are also useful for packages that define multiple executables, but do not define a publicly accessible library. Internal libraries are only visible internally in the package (so they can only be added to the build-depends of same-package libraries, executables, test suites, etc.) Internal libraries locally shadow any packages which have the same name; consequently, don’t name an internal library with the same name as an external dependency if you need to be able to refer to the external dependency in a build-depends declaration. Shadowing can be used to vendor an external dependency into a package and thus emulate private dependencies. Below is an example based on a real-world use case: cabal-version: 2.2 name: haddock-library version: 1.6.0 library build-depends: , base ^>= 4.11.1.0 , bytestring ^>= 0.10.2.0 , containers ^>= 0.4.2.1 || ^>= 0.5.0.0 , transformers ^>= 0.5.0.0 hs-source-dirs: src -- internal sub-lib build-depends: attoparsec exposed-modules: Documentation.Haddock library attoparsec build-depends: , base ^>= 4.11.1.0 , bytestring ^>= 0.10.2.0 , deepseq ^>= 1.4.0.0 hs-source-dirs: vendor/attoparsec-0.13.1.0 -- NB: haddock-library needs only small part of lib:attoparsec -- internally, so we only bundle that subset here exposed-modules: Data.Attoparsec.ByteString Data.Attoparsec.Combinator other-modules: Data.Attoparsec.Internal ghc-options: -funbox-strict-fields -Wall -fwarn-tabs -O2  ### 3.3.2.4. Opening an interpreter session¶ While developing a package, it is often useful to make its code available inside an interpreter session. This can be done with the repl command: $ cabal repl


The name comes from the acronym REPL, which stands for “read-eval-print-loop”. By default cabal repl loads the first component in a package. If the package contains several named components, the name can be given as an argument to repl. The name can be also optionally prefixed with the component’s type for disambiguation purposes. Example:

$cabal repl foo$ cabal repl exe:foo
$cabal repl test:bar$ cabal repl bench:baz


#### 3.3.2.4.1. Freezing dependency versions¶

If a package is built in several different environments, such as a development environment, a staging environment and a production environment, it may be necessary or desirable to ensure that the same dependency versions are selected in each environment. This can be done with the freeze command:

$cabal freeze  The command writes the selected version for all dependencies to the cabal.config file. All environments which share this file will use the dependency versions specified in it. #### 3.3.2.4.2. Generating dependency version bounds¶ Cabal also has the ability to suggest dependency version bounds that conform to Package Versioning Policy, which is a recommended versioning system for publicly released Cabal packages. This is done by running the gen-bounds command: $ cabal gen-bounds


For example, given the following dependencies specified in build-depends:

build-depends:
foo == 0.5.2
bar == 1.1


gen-bounds will suggest changing them to the following:

build-depends:
foo >= 0.5.2 && < 0.6
bar >= 1.1 && < 1.2


#### 3.3.2.4.3. Listing outdated dependency version bounds¶

Manually updating dependency version bounds in a .cabal file or a freeze file can be tedious, especially when there’s a lot of dependencies. The cabal outdated command is designed to help with that. It will print a list of packages for which there is a new version on Hackage that is outside the version bound specified in the build-depends field. The outdated command can also be configured to act on the freeze file (both old- and v2-style) and ignore major (or all) version bumps on Hackage for a subset of dependencies.

The following flags are supported by the outdated command:

--freeze-file
Read dependency version bounds from the freeze file (cabal.config) instead of the package description file ($PACKAGENAME.cabal). --v1-freeze-file is an alias for this flag starting in Cabal 2.4. --v2-freeze-file  since: 2.4 Read dependency version bounds from the v2-style freeze file (by default, cabal.project.freeze) instead of the package description file. --new-freeze-file is an alias for this flag that can be used with pre-2.4 cabal. --project-file PROJECTFILE  since: 2.4 Read dependendency version bounds from the v2-style freeze file related to the named project file (i.e., $PROJECTFILE.freeze) instead of the package desctription file. If multiple --project-file flags are provided, only the final one is considered. This flag must only be passed in when --new-freeze-file is present.

--simple-output
Print only the names of outdated dependencies, one per line.
--exit-code
Exit with a non-zero exit code when there are outdated dependencies.
-q, --quiet
Don’t print any output. Implies -v0 and --exit-code.
--ignore PACKAGENAMES
Don’t warn about outdated dependency version bounds for the packages in this list.
--minor [PACKAGENAMES]
Ignore major version bumps for these packages. E.g. if there’s a version 2.0 of a package pkg on Hackage and the freeze file specifies the constraint pkg == 1.9, cabal outdated --freeze --minor=pkg will only consider the pkg outdated when there’s a version of pkg on Hackage satisfying pkg > 1.9 && < 2.0. --minor can also be used without arguments, in that case major version bumps are ignored for all packages.

Examples:

$cd /some/package$ cabal outdated
Outdated dependencies:
language-javascript <0.6 (latest: 0.6.0.9)
unix ==2.7.2.0 (latest: 2.7.2.1)

$cabal outdated --simple-output haskell-src-exts language-javascript unix$ cabal outdated --ignore=haskell-src-exts
Outdated dependencies:
language-javascript <0.6 (latest: 0.6.0.9)
unix ==2.7.2.0 (latest: 2.7.2.1)

$cabal outdated --ignore=haskell-src-exts,language-javascript,unix All dependencies are up to date.$ cabal outdated --ignore=haskell-src-exts,language-javascript,unix -q
$echo$?
0

$cd /some/other/package$ cabal outdated --freeze-file
Outdated dependencies:
HTTP ==4000.3.3 (latest: 4000.3.4)
HUnit ==1.3.1.1 (latest: 1.5.0.0)

$cabal outdated --freeze-file --ignore=HTTP --minor=HUnit Outdated dependencies: HUnit ==1.3.1.1 (latest: 1.3.1.2)  ### 3.3.2.5. Executables¶ executable name Executable sections (if present) describe executable programs contained in the package and must have an argument after the section label, which defines the name of the executable. This is a freeform argument but may not contain spaces. The executable may be described using the following fields, as well as build information fields (see the section on build information). main-is: filename (required) The name of the .hs or .lhs file containing the Main module. Note that it is the .hs filename that must be listed, even if that file is generated using a preprocessor. The source file must be relative to one of the directories listed in hs-source-dirs. Further, while the name of the file may vary, the module itself must be named Main. Starting with cabal-version: 1.18 this field supports specifying a C, C++, or objC source file as the main entry point. scope: token Since: Cabal 2.0 Whether the executable is public (default) or private, i.e. meant to be run by other programs rather than the user. Private executables are installed into$libexecdir/$libexecsubdir. #### 3.3.2.5.1. Running executables¶ You can have Cabal build and run your executables by using the run command: $ cabal run EXECUTABLE [-- EXECUTABLE_FLAGS]


This command will configure, build and run the executable EXECUTABLE. The double dash separator is required to distinguish executable flags from run’s own flags. If there is only one executable defined in the whole package, the executable’s name can be omitted. See the output of cabal help run for a list of options you can pass to cabal run.

### 3.3.2.6. Test suites¶

test-suite name

Test suite sections (if present) describe package test suites and must have an argument after the section label, which defines the name of the test suite. This is a freeform argument, but may not contain spaces. It should be unique among the names of the package’s other test suites, the package’s executables, and the package itself. Using test suite sections requires at least Cabal version 1.9.2.

The test suite may be described using the following fields, as well as build information fields (see the section on build information).

type: interface (required)

The interface type and version of the test suite. Cabal supports two test suite interfaces, called exitcode-stdio-1.0 and detailed-0.9. Each of these types may require or disallow other fields as described below.

Test suites using the exitcode-stdio-1.0 interface are executables that indicate test failure with a non-zero exit code when run; they may provide human-readable log information through the standard output and error channels. The exitcode-stdio-1.0 type requires the main-is field.

main-is: filename
Required: exitcode-stdio-1.0 detailed-0.9

The name of the .hs or .lhs file containing the Main module. Note that it is the .hs filename that must be listed, even if that file is generated using a preprocessor. The source file must be relative to one of the directories listed in hs-source-dirs. This field is analogous to the main-is field of an executable section.

Test suites using the detailed-0.9 interface are modules exporting the symbol tests :: IO [Test]. The Test type is exported by the module Distribution.TestSuite provided by Cabal. For more details, see the example below.

The detailed-0.9 interface allows Cabal and other test agents to inspect a test suite’s results case by case, producing detailed human- and machine-readable log files. The detailed-0.9 interface requires the test-module field.

test-module: identifier
Required: detailed-0.9 exitcode-stdio-1.0

The module exporting the tests symbol.

#### 3.3.2.6.1. Example: Package using exitcode-stdio-1.0 interface¶

The example package description and executable source file below demonstrate the use of the exitcode-stdio-1.0 interface.

foo.cabal
Name:           foo
Version:        1.0
Cabal-Version:  >= 1.9.2
Build-Type:     Simple

Test-Suite test-foo
type:       exitcode-stdio-1.0
main-is:    test-foo.hs
build-depends: base >= 4 && < 5

test-foo.hs
module Main where

import System.Exit (exitFailure)

main = do
putStrLn "This test always fails!"
exitFailure


#### 3.3.2.6.2. Example: Package using detailed-0.9 interface¶

The example package description and test module source file below demonstrate the use of the detailed-0.9 interface. The test module also develops a simple implementation of the interface set by Distribution.TestSuite, but in actual usage the implementation would be provided by the library that provides the testing facility.

bar.cabal
Name:           bar
Version:        1.0
Cabal-Version:  >= 1.9.2
Build-Type:     Simple

Test-Suite test-bar
type:       detailed-0.9
test-module: Bar
build-depends: base >= 4 && < 5, Cabal >= 1.9.2 && < 2

Bar.hs
module Bar ( tests ) where

import Distribution.TestSuite

tests :: IO [Test]
tests = return [ Test succeeds, Test fails ]
where
succeeds = TestInstance
{ run = return $Finished Pass , name = "succeeds" , tags = [] , options = [] , setOption = \_ _ -> Right succeeds } fails = TestInstance { run = return$ Finished $Fail "Always fails!" , name = "fails" , tags = [] , options = [] , setOption = \_ _ -> Right fails }  #### 3.3.2.6.3. Running test suites¶ You can have Cabal run your test suites using its built-in test runner: $ cabal configure --enable-tests
$cabal build$ cabal test


See the output of cabal help test for a list of options you can pass to cabal test.

### 3.3.2.7. Benchmarks¶

benchmark name
Since: Cabal 1.9.2

Benchmark sections (if present) describe benchmarks contained in the package and must have an argument after the section label, which defines the name of the benchmark. This is a freeform argument, but may not contain spaces. It should be unique among the names of the package’s other benchmarks, the package’s test suites, the package’s executables, and the package itself. Using benchmark sections requires at least Cabal version 1.9.2.

The benchmark may be described using the following fields, as well as build information fields (see the section on build information).

type: interface (required)

The interface type and version of the benchmark. At the moment Cabal only support one benchmark interface, called exitcode-stdio-1.0.

Benchmarks using the exitcode-stdio-1.0 interface are executables that indicate failure to run the benchmark with a non-zero exit code when run; they may provide human-readable information through the standard output and error channels.

main-is: filename
Required: exitcode-stdio-1.0

The name of the .hs or .lhs file containing the Main module. Note that it is the .hs filename that must be listed, even if that file is generated using a preprocessor. The source file must be relative to one of the directories listed in hs-source-dirs. This field is analogous to the main-is field of an executable section. Further, while the name of the file may vary, the module itself must be named Main.

#### 3.3.2.7.1. Example: Package using exitcode-stdio-1.0 interface¶

The example package description and executable source file below demonstrate the use of the exitcode-stdio-1.0 interface.

foo.cabal
Name:           foo
Version:        1.0
Cabal-Version:  >= 1.9.2
Build-Type:     Simple

Benchmark bench-foo
type:       exitcode-stdio-1.0
main-is:    bench-foo.hs
build-depends: base >= 4 && < 5, time >= 1.1 && < 1.7

bench-foo.hs
{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-}
module Main where

import Data.Time.Clock

fib 0 = 1
fib 1 = 1
fib n = fib (n-1) + fib (n-2)

main = do
start <- getCurrentTime
let !r = fib 20
end <- getCurrentTime
putStrLn $"fib 20 took " ++ show (diffUTCTime end start)  #### 3.3.2.7.2. Running benchmarks¶ You can have Cabal run your benchmark using its built-in benchmark runner: $ cabal configure --enable-benchmarks
$cabal build$ cabal bench


See the output of cabal help bench for a list of options you can pass to cabal bench.

### 3.3.2.8. Foreign libraries¶

Foreign libraries are system libraries intended to be linked against programs written in C or other “foreign” languages. They come in two primary flavours: dynamic libraries (.so files on Linux, .dylib files on OSX, .dll files on Windows, etc.) are linked against executables when the executable is run (or even lazily during execution), while static libraries (.a files on Linux/OSX, .lib files on Windows) get linked against the executable at compile time.

Foreign libraries only work with GHC 7.8 and later.

A typical stanza for a foreign library looks like

foreign-library myforeignlib
type:                native-shared
lib-version-info:    6:3:2

if os(Windows)
options: standalone
mod-def-file: MyForeignLib.def

other-modules:       MyForeignLib.SomeModule
MyForeignLib.SomeOtherModule
build-depends:       base >=4.7 && <4.9
hs-source-dirs:      src
c-sources:           csrc/MyForeignLibWrapper.c

foreign-library name
Since: Cabal 2.0

Build information for foreign libraries.

type: foreign library type

Cabal recognizes native-static and native-shared here, although we currently only support building native-shared libraries.

options: foreign library option list

Options for building the foreign library, typically specific to the specified type of foreign library. Currently we only support standalone here. A standalone dynamic library is one that does not have any dependencies on other (Haskell) shared libraries; without the standalone option the generated library would have dependencies on the Haskell runtime library (libHSrts), the base library (libHSbase), etc. Currently, standalone must be used on Windows and must not be used on any other platform.

mod-def-file: filename

This option can only be used when creating dynamic Windows libraries (that is, when using native-shared and the os is Windows). If used, it must be a path to a module definition file. The details of module definition files are beyond the scope of this document; see the GHC manual for some details and some further pointers.

lib-version-info: current:revision:age

This field is currently only used on Linux.

This field specifies a Libtool-style version-info field that sets an appropriate ABI version for the foreign library. Note that the three numbers specified in this field do not directly specify the actual ABI version: 6:3:2 results in library version 4.2.3.

With this field set, the SONAME of the library is set, and symlinks are installed.

How you should bump this field on an ABI change depends on the breakage you introduce:

• Programs using the previous version may use the new version as drop-in replacement, and programs using the new version can also work with the previous one. In other words, no recompiling nor relinking is needed. In this case, bump revision only, don’t touch current nor age.
• Programs using the previous version may use the new version as drop-in replacement, but programs using the new version may use APIs not present in the previous one. In other words, a program linking against the new version may fail with “unresolved symbols” if linking against the old version at runtime: set revision to 0, bump current and age.
• Programs may need to be changed, recompiled, and relinked in order to use the new version. Bump current, set revision and age to 0.

Also refer to the Libtool documentation on the version-info field.

lib-version-linux: version

This field is only used on Linux.

Specifies the library ABI version directly for foreign libraries built on Linux: so specifying 4.2.3 causes a library libfoo.so.4.2.3 to be built with SONAME libfoo.so.4, and appropriate symlinks libfoo.so.4 and libfoo.so to be installed.

Note that typically foreign libraries should export a way to initialize and shutdown the Haskell runtime. In the example above, this is done by the csrc/MyForeignLibWrapper.c file, which might look something like

#include <stdlib.h>
#include "HsFFI.h"

HsBool myForeignLibInit(void){
int argc = 2;
char *argv[] = { "+RTS", "-A32m", NULL };
char **pargv = argv;

hs_init(&argc, &pargv);

// do any other initialization here and
// return false if there was a problem
return HS_BOOL_TRUE;
}

void myForeignLibExit(void){
hs_exit();
}


With modern ghc regular libraries are installed in directories that contain package keys. This isn’t usually a problem because the package gets registered in ghc’s package DB and so we can figure out what the location of the library is. Foreign libraries however don’t get registered, which means that we’d have to have a way of finding out where a platform library got installed (other than by searching the lib/ directory). Instead, we install foreign libraries in ~/.cabal/lib, much like we install executables in ~/.cabal/bin.

### 3.3.2.9. Build information¶

The following fields may be optionally present in a library, executable, test suite or benchmark section, and give information for the building of the corresponding library or executable. See also the sections on system-dependent parameters and configurations for a way to supply system-dependent values for these fields.

build-depends: library list

Declares the library dependencies required to build the current package component; see build-tool-depends for declaring build-time tool dependencies. External library dependencies should be annotated with a version constraint.

Library Names

External libraries are identified by the package’s name they’re provided by (currently a package can only publicly expose its main library compeonent; in future, packages with multiple exposed public library components will be supported and a syntax for referring to public sub-libraries will be provided).

In order to specify an intra-package dependency on an internal library component you can use the unqualified name of the component library component. Note that locally defined sub-library names shadow external package names of the same name. See section on Internal Libraries for examples and more information.

Version Constraints

Version constraints use the operators ==, >=, >, <, <= and a version number. Multiple constraints can be combined using && or ||. If no version constraint is specified, any version is assumed to be acceptable. For example:

library
build-depends:
base >= 2,
foo >= 1.2.3 && < 1.3,
bar


Dependencies like foo >= 1.2.3 && < 1.3 turn out to be very common because it is recommended practise for package versions to correspond to API versions (see PVP).

Since Cabal 1.6, there is a special wildcard syntax to help with such ranges

build-depends: foo ==1.2.*


It is only syntactic sugar. It is exactly equivalent to foo >= 1.2 && < 1.3.

Warning

A potential pitfall of the wildcard syntax is that the constraint nats == 1.0.* doesn’t match the release nats-1 because the version 1 is lexicographically less than 1.0. This is not an issue with the caret-operator ^>= described below.

Starting with Cabal 2.0, there’s a new version operator to express PVP-style major upper bounds conveniently, and is inspired by similar syntactic sugar found in other language ecosystems where it’s often called the “Caret” operator:

build-depends:
foo ^>= 1.2.3.4,
bar ^>= 1


This allows to assert the positive knowledge that this package is known to be semantically compatible with the releases foo-1.2.3.4 and bar-1 respectively. The information encoded via such ^>=-assertions is used by the cabal solver to infer version constraints describing semantically compatible version ranges according to the PVP contract (see below).

Another way to say this is that foo < 1.3 expresses negative information, i.e. “foo-1.3 or foo-1.4.2 will not be compatible”; whereas foo ^>= 1.2.3.4 asserts the positive information that “foo-1.2.3.4 is known to be compatible” and (in the absence of additional information) according to the PVP contract we can (positively) infer right away that all versions satisfying foo >= 1.2.3.4 && < 1.3 will be compatible as well.

Note

More generally, the PVP contract implies that we can safely relax the lower bound to >= 1.2, because if we know that foo-1.2.3.4 is semantically compatible, then so is foo-1.2 (if it typechecks). But we’d need to perform additional static analysis (i.e. perform typechecking) in order to know if our package in the role of an API consumer will successfully typecheck against the dependency foo-1.2. But since we cannot do this analysis during constraint solving and to keep things simple, we pragmatically use foo >= 1.2.3.4 as the initially inferred approximation for the lower bound resulting from the assertion foo ^>= 1.2.3.4. If further evidence becomes available that e.g. foo-1.2 typechecks, one can simply revise the dependency specification to include the assertion foo ^>= 1.2.

The subtle but important difference in signaling allows tooling to treat explicitly expressed <-style constraints and inferred (^>=-style) upper bounds differently. For instance, --allow-newer’s ^-modifier allows to relax only ^>=-style bounds while leaving explicitly stated <-constraints unaffected.

Ignoring the signaling intent, the default syntactic desugaring rules are

• ^>= x == >= x && < x.1
• ^>= x.y == >= x.y && < x.(y+1)
• ^>= x.y.z == >= x.y.z && < x.(y+1)
• ^>= x.y.z.u == >= x.y.z.u && < x.(y+1)
• etc.

Note

One might expected the desugaring to truncate all version components below (and including) the patch-level, i.e. ^>= x.y.z.u == >= x.y.z && < x.(y+1), as the major and minor version components alone are supposed to uniquely identify the API according to the PVP. However, by designing ^>= to be closer to the >= operator, we avoid the potentially confusing effect of ^>= being more liberal than >= in the presence of patch-level versions.

Consequently, the example declaration above is equivalent to

build-depends:
foo >= 1.2.3.4 && < 1.3,
bar >= 1 && < 1.1


Note

Prior to Cabal 1.8, build-depends specified in each section were global to all sections. This was unintentional, but some packages were written to depend on it, so if you need your build-depends to be local to each section, you must specify at least Cabal-Version: >= 1.8 in your .cabal file.

Note

Cabal 1.20 experimentally supported module thinning and renaming in build-depends; however, this support has since been removed and should not be used.

Starting with Cabal 3.0, a set notation for the == and ^>= operator is available. For instance,

tested-with: GHC == 8.6.3, GHC == 8.4.4, GHC == 8.2.2, GHC == 8.0.2,
GHC == 7.10.3, GHC == 7.8.4, GHC == 7.6.3, GHC == 7.4.2

build-depends: network ^>= 2.6.3.6 || ^>= 2.7.0.2 || ^>= 2.8.0.0 || ^>= 3.0.1.0


can be then written in a more convenient and concise form

tested-with: GHC == { 8.6.3, 8.4.4, 8.2.2, 8.0.2, 7.10.3, 7.8.4, 7.6.3, 7.4.2 }

build-depends: network ^>= { 2.6.3.6, 2.7.0.2, 2.8.0.0, 3.0.1.0 }

other-modules: identifier list

A list of modules used by the component but not exposed to users. For a library component, these would be hidden modules of the library. For an executable, these would be auxiliary modules to be linked with the file named in the main-is field.

Note

Every module in the package must be listed in one of other-modules, library:exposed-modules or executable:main-is fields.

hs-source-dir: directory list
Removed: Cabal 3.0 Cabal 2.0 .

Root directories for the module hierarchy.

Deprecated in favor of hs-source-dirs.

hs-source-dirs: directory list
Default value: .

Root directories for the module hierarchy.

Note

Components can share source directories but modules found there will be recompiled even if other components already built them, i.e., if a library and an executable share a source directory and the executable depends on the library and imports its Foo module, Foo will be compiled twice, once as part of the library and again for the executable.

default-extensions: identifier list

A list of Haskell extensions used by every module. These determine corresponding compiler options enabled for all files. Extension names are the constructors of the Extension type. For example, CPP specifies that Haskell source files are to be preprocessed with a C preprocessor.

other-extensions: identifier list

A list of Haskell extensions used by some (but not necessarily all) modules. From GHC version 6.6 onward, these may be specified by placing a LANGUAGE pragma in the source files affected e.g.

{-# LANGUAGE CPP, MultiParamTypeClasses #-}


In Cabal-1.24 the dependency solver will use this and default-extensions information. Cabal prior to 1.24 will abort compilation if the current compiler doesn’t provide the extensions.

If you use some extensions conditionally, using CPP or conditional module lists, it is good to replicate the condition in other-extensions declarations:

other-extensions: CPP
if impl(ghc >= 7.5)
other-extensions: PolyKinds


You could also omit the conditionally used extensions, as they are for information only, but it is recommended to replicate them in other-extensions declarations.

extensions: identifier list
Removed: Cabal 3.0 Cabal 1.12

Deprecated in favor of default-extensions.

build-tool-depends: package:executable list
Since: Cabal 2.0

A list of Haskell executables needed to build this component. Executables are provided during the whole duration of the component, so this field can be used for executables needed during test-suite as well.

Each is specified by the package containing the executable and the name of the executable itself, separated by a colon, and optionally followed by a version bound.

All executables defined in the given Cabal file are termed as internal dependencies as opposed to the rest which are external dependencies.

Each of the two is handled differently:

1. External dependencies can (and should) contain a version bound like conventional build-depends dependencies.
2. Internal depenedencies should not contain a version bound, as they will be always resolved within the same configuration of the package in the build plan. Specifically, version bounds that include the package’s version will be warned for being extraneous, and version bounds that exclude the package’s version will raise an error for being impossible to follow.

For example (1) using a test-suite to make sure README.md Haskell snippets are tested using markdown-unlit:

build-tool-depends: markdown-unlit:markdown-unlit >= 0.5.0 && < 0.6


For example (2) using a test-suite to test executable behaviour in the same package:

build-tool-depends: mypackage:executable


Cabal tries to make sure that all specified programs are atomically built and prepended on the $PATH shell variable before building the component in question, but can only do so for Nix-style builds. Specifically: 1. For Nix-style local builds, both internal and external dependencies. 2. For old-style builds, only for internal dependencies [1]. It’s up to the user to provide needed executables in this case under$PATH.

Note

build-tool-depends was added in Cabal 2.0, and it will be ignored (with a warning) with old versions of Cabal. See build-tools for more information about backwards compatibility.

build-tools: program list
Removed: Cabal 3.0 Cabal 2.0

Deprecated in favor of build-tool-depends, but see below for backwards compatibility information.

A list of Haskell programs needed to build this component. Each may be followed by an optional version bound. Confusingly, each program in the list either refer to one of three things:

1. Another executables in the same package (supported since Cabal 1.12)
2. Tool name contained in Cabal’s hard-coded set of common tools
3. A pre-built executable that should already be on the PATH (supported since Cabal 2.0)

These cases are listed in order of priority: an executable in the package will override any of the hard-coded packages with the same name, and a hard-coded package will override any executable on the PATH.

In the first two cases, the list entry is desugared into a build-tool-depends entry. In the first case, the entry is desugared into a build-tool-depends entry by prefixing with $pkg:. In the second case, it is desugared by looking up the package and executable name in a hard-coded table. In either case, the optional version bound is passed through unchanged. Refer to the documentation for build-tool-depends to understand the desugared field’s meaning, along with restrictions on version bounds. Backward Compatibility Although this field is deprecated in favor of build-tool-depends, there are some situations where you may prefer to use build-tools in cases (1) and (2), as it is supported by more versions of Cabal. In case (3), build-tool-depends is better for backwards-compatibility, as it will be ignored by old versions of Cabal; if you add the executable to build-tools, a setup script built against old Cabal will choke. If an old version of Cabal is used, an end-user will have to manually arrange for the requested executable to be in your PATH. Set of Known Tool Names Identifiers specified in build-tools are desugared into their respective equivalent build-tool-depends form according to the table below. Consequently, a legacy specification such as: build-tools: alex >= 3.2.1 && < 3.3, happy >= 1.19.5 && < 1.20  is simply desugared into the equivalent specification: build-tool-depends: alex:alex >= 3.2.1 && < 3.3, happy:happy >= 1.19.5 && < 1.20  build-tools identifier desugared build-tool-depends identifier Note alex alex:alex c2hs c2hs:c2hs cpphs cpphs:cpphs greencard greencard:greencard haddock haddock:haddock happy happy:happy hsc2hs hsc2hs:hsc2hs hscolour hscolour:hscolour hspec-discover hspec-discover:hspec-discover since Cabal 2.0 This built-in set can be programmatically extended via Custom setup scripts; this, however, is of limited use since the Cabal solver cannot access information injected by Custom setup scripts. buildable: boolean Default value: True Is the component buildable? Like some of the other fields below, this field is more useful with the slightly more elaborate form of the simple build infrastructure described in the section on system-dependent parameters. ghc-options: token list Additional options for GHC. You can often achieve the same effect using the default-extensions field, which is preferred. Options required only by one module may be specified by placing an OPTIONS_GHC pragma in the source file affected. As with many other fields, whitespace can be escaped by using Haskell string syntax. Example: ghc-options: -Wcompat "-with-rtsopts=-T -I1" -Wall. ghc-prof-options: token list Additional options for GHC when the package is built with profiling enabled. Note that as of Cabal-1.24, the default profiling detail level defaults to exported-functions for libraries and toplevel-functions for executables. For GHC these correspond to the flags -fprof-auto-exported and -fprof-auto-top. Prior to Cabal-1.24 the level defaulted to none. These levels can be adjusted by the person building the package with the --profiling-detail and --library-profiling-detail flags. It is typically better for the person building the package to pick the profiling detail level rather than for the package author. So unless you have special needs it is probably better not to specify any of the GHC -fprof-auto* flags here. However if you wish to override the profiling detail level, you can do so using the ghc-prof-options field: use -fno-prof-auto or one of the other -fprof-auto* flags. ghc-shared-options: token list Additional options for GHC when the package is built as shared library. The options specified via this field are combined with the ones specified via ghc-options, and are passed to GHC during both the compile and link phases. includes: filename list A list of header files to be included in any compilations via C. This field applies to both header files that are already installed on the system and to those coming with the package to be installed. The former files should be found in absolute paths, while the latter files should be found in paths relative to the top of the source tree or relative to one of the directories listed in include-dirs. These files typically contain function prototypes for foreign imports used by the package. This is in contrast to install-includes, which lists header files that are intended to be exposed to other packages that transitively depend on this library. install-includes: filename list A list of header files from this package to be installed into $libdir/includes when the package is installed. Files listed in install-includes should be found in relative to the top of the source tree or relative to one of the directories listed in include-dirs.

install-includes is typically used to name header files that contain prototypes for foreign imports used in Haskell code in this package, for which the C implementations are also provided with the package. For example, here is a .cabal file for a hypothetical bindings-clib package that bundles the C source code for clib:

include-dirs:     cbits
c-sources:        clib.c
install-includes: clib.h


Now any package that depends (directly or transitively) on the bindings-clib library can use clib.h.

Note that in order for files listed in install-includes to be usable when compiling the package itself, they need to be listed in the includes field as well.

include-dirs: directory list

A list of directories to search for header files, when preprocessing with c2hs, hsc2hs, cpphs or the C preprocessor, and also when compiling via C. Directories can be absolute paths (e.g., for system directories) or paths that are relative to the top of the source tree. Cabal looks in these directories when attempting to locate files listed in includes and install-includes.

c-sources: filename list

A list of C source files to be compiled and linked with the Haskell files.

cxx-sources: filename list
Since: Cabal 2.2

A list of C++ source files to be compiled and linked with the Haskell files. Useful for segregating C and C++ sources when supplying different command-line arguments to the compiler via the cc-options and the cxx-options fields. The files listed in the cxx-sources can reference files listed in the c-sources field and vice-versa. The object files will be linked appropriately.

asm-sources: filename list
Since: Cabal 3.0

A list of assembly source files to be compiled and linked with the Haskell files.

cmm-sources: filename list
Since: Cabal 3.0

A list of C– source files to be compiled and linked with the Haskell files.

js-sources: filename list

A list of JavaScript source files to be linked with the Haskell files (only for JavaScript targets).

extra-libraries: token list

A list of extra libraries to link with.

extra-ghci-libraries: token list

A list of extra libraries to be used instead of ‘extra-libraries’ when the package is loaded with GHCi.

extra-bundled-libraries: token list
Since: Cabal 2.2

A list of libraries that are supposed to be copied from the build directory alongside the produced Haskell libraries. Note that you are under the obligation to produce those libraries in the build directory (e.g. via a custom setup). Libraries listed here will be included when copy-ing packages and be listed in the hs-libraries of the package configuration in the package database. Library names must either be prefixed with “HS” or “C” and corresponding library file names must match:

• Libraries with name “HS<library-name>”:
• libHS<library-name>.a
• libHS<library-name>-ghc<ghc-flavour><ghc-version>.<dyn-library-extension>*
• Libraries with name “C<library-name>”:
• libC<library-name>.a
• lib<library-name>.<dyn-library-extension>*
extra-lib-dirs: directory list

A list of directories to search for libraries.

cc-options: token list

Command-line arguments to be passed to the C compiler. Since the arguments are compiler-dependent, this field is more useful with the setup described in the section on system-dependent parameters.

cpp-options: token list

Command-line arguments for pre-processing Haskell code. Applies to Haskell source and other pre-processed Haskell source like .hsc .chs. Does not apply to C code, that’s what cc-options is for.

cxx-options: token list
Since: Cabal 2.2

Command-line arguments to be passed to the compiler when compiling C++ code. The C++ sources to which these command-line arguments should be applied can be specified with the cxx-sources field. Command-line options for C and C++ can be passed separately to the compiler when compiling both C and C++ sources by segregating the C and C++ sources with the c-sources and cxx-sources fields respectively, and providing different command-line arguments with the cc-options and the cxx-options fields.

cmm-options: token list
Since: Cabal 3.0

Command-line arguments to be passed to the compiler when compiling C– code. See also cmm-sources.

asm-options: token list
Since: Cabal 3.0

Command-line arguments to be passed to the assembler when compiling assembler code. See also asm-sources.

ld-options: token list

Command-line arguments to be passed to the linker. Since the arguments are compiler-dependent, this field is more useful with the setup described in the section on system-dependent parameters.

pkgconfig-depends: package list

A list of pkg-config packages, needed to build this package. They can be annotated with versions, e.g. gtk+-2.0 >= 2.10, cairo >= 1.0. If no version constraint is specified, any version is assumed to be acceptable. Cabal uses pkg-config to find if the packages are available on the system and to find the extra compilation and linker options needed to use the packages.

If you need to bind to a C library that supports pkg-config then it is much preferable to use this field rather than hard code options into the other fields. pkg-config --list-all will show you all supported libraries. Depending on your system you may need to adjust PKG_CONFIG_PATH.

frameworks: token list

On Darwin/MacOS X, a list of frameworks to link to. See Apple’s developer documentation for more details on frameworks. This entry is ignored on all other platforms.

extra-frameworks-dirs: directory list
Since: Cabal 1.24

On Darwin/MacOS X, a list of directories to search for frameworks. This entry is ignored on all other platforms.

mixins: mixin list
Since: Cabal 2.0

Supported only in GHC 8.2 and later. A list of packages mentioned in the build-depends field, each optionally accompanied by a list of module and module signature renamings.

The simplest mixin syntax is simply the name of a package mentioned in the build-depends field. For example:

library
build-depends:
foo ^>= 1.2.3
mixins:
foo


But this doesn’t have any effect. More interesting is to use the mixin entry to rename one or more modules from the package, like this:

library
mixins:
foo (Foo.Bar as AnotherFoo.Bar, Foo.Baz as AnotherFoo.Baz)


Note that renaming a module like this will hide all the modules that are not explicitly named.

Modules can also be hidden:

library:
mixins:
foo hiding (Foo.Bar)


Hiding modules exposes everything that is not explicitly hidden.

Note

The current version of Cabal suffers from an infelicity in how the entries of mixins are parsed: an entry will fail to parse if the provided renaming clause has whitespace after the opening parenthesis. This will be fixed in future versions of Cabal.

See issues #5150, #4864, and #5293.

There can be multiple mixin entries for a given package, in effect creating multiple copies of the dependency:

library
mixins:
foo (Foo.Bar as AnotherFoo.Bar, Foo.Baz as AnotherFoo.Baz),
foo (Foo.Bar as YetAnotherFoo.Bar)


The requires clause is used to rename the module signatures required by a package:

library
mixins:
foo (Foo.Bar as AnotherFoo.Bar) requires (Foo.SomeSig as AnotherFoo.SomeSig)


Signature-only packages don’t have any modules, so only the signatures can be renamed, with the following syntax:

library
mixins:
sigonly requires (SigOnly.SomeSig as AnotherSigOnly.SomeSig)


See the library:signatures field for more details.

Mixin packages are part of the Backpack extension to the Haskell module system.

The matching of the module signatures required by a build-depends dependency with the implementation modules present in another dependency is triggered by a coincidence of names. When the names of the signature and of the implementation are already the same, the matching is automatic. But when the names don’t coincide, or we want to instantiate a signature in two different ways, adding mixin entries that perform renamings becomes necessary.

Warning

Backpack has the limitation that implementation modules that instantiate signatures required by a build-depends dependency can’t reside in the same component that has the dependency. They must reside in a different package dependency, or at least in a separate internal library.

### 3.3.2.10. Configurations¶

Library and executable sections may include conditional blocks, which test for various system parameters and configuration flags. The flags mechanism is rather generic, but most of the time a flag represents certain feature, that can be switched on or off by the package user. Here is an example package description file using configurations:

#### 3.3.2.10.1. Example: A package containing a library and executable programs¶

Name: Test1
Version: 0.0.1
Cabal-Version: >= 1.8
Author:  Jane Doe
Synopsis: Test package to test configurations
Category: Example
Build-Type: Simple

Flag Debug
Description: Enable debug support
Default:     False
Manual:      True

Flag WebFrontend
Description: Include API for web frontend.
Default:     False
Manual:      True

Flag NewDirectory
description: Whether to build against @directory >= 1.2@
-- This is an automatic flag which the solver will be
-- assign automatically while searching for a solution

Library
Build-Depends:   base >= 4.2 && < 4.9
Exposed-Modules: Testing.Test1
Extensions:      CPP

GHC-Options: -Wall
if flag(Debug)
CPP-Options: -DDEBUG
if !os(windows)
CC-Options: "-DDEBUG"
else
CC-Options: "-DNDEBUG"

if flag(WebFrontend)
Build-Depends: cgi >= 0.42 && < 0.44
Other-Modules: Testing.WebStuff
CPP-Options: -DWEBFRONTEND

if flag(NewDirectory)
build-depends: directory >= 1.2 && < 1.4
Build-Depends: time >= 1.0 && < 1.9
else
build-depends: directory == 1.1.*
Build-Depends: old-time >= 1.0 && < 1.2

Executable test1
Main-is: T1.hs
Other-Modules: Testing.Test1
Build-Depends: base >= 4.2 && < 4.9

if flag(debug)
CC-Options: "-DDEBUG"
CPP-Options: -DDEBUG


#### 3.3.2.10.2. Layout¶

Flags, conditionals, library and executable sections use layout to indicate structure. This is very similar to the Haskell layout rule. Entries in a section have to all be indented to the same level which must be more than the section header. Tabs are not allowed to be used for indentation.

As an alternative to using layout you can also use explicit braces {}. In this case the indentation of entries in a section does not matter, though different fields within a block must be on different lines. Here is a bit of the above example again, using braces:

#### 3.3.2.10.3. Example: Using explicit braces rather than indentation for layout¶

Name: Test1
Version: 0.0.1
Cabal-Version: >= 1.8
Author:  Jane Doe
Synopsis: Test package to test configurations
Category: Example
Build-Type: Simple

Flag Debug {
Description: Enable debug support
Default:     False
Manual:      True
}

Library {
Build-Depends:   base >= 4.2 && < 4.9
Exposed-Modules: Testing.Test1
Extensions:      CPP
if flag(debug) {
CPP-Options: -DDEBUG
if !os(windows) {
CC-Options: "-DDEBUG"
} else {
CC-Options: "-DNDEBUG"
}
}
}


#### 3.3.2.10.4. Configuration Flags¶

flag name

Flag section declares a flag which can be used in conditional blocks.

Flag names are case-insensitive and must match [[:alnum:]_][[:alnum:]_-]* regular expression, or expressed as ABNF:

flag-name = (UALNUM / "_") *(UALNUM / "_" / "-")

UALNUM = UALPHA / DIGIT
UALPHA = ... ; set of alphabetic Unicode code-points


Note

Hackage accepts ASCII-only flags, [a-zA-Z0-9_][a-zA-Z0-9_-]* regexp.

description: freeform

The description of this flag.

default: boolean
Default value: True

The default value of this flag.

Note

This value may be overridden in several ways. The rationale for having flags default to True is that users usually want new features as soon as they are available. Flags representing features that are not (yet) recommended for most users (such as experimental features or debugging support) should therefore explicitly override the default to False.

manual: boolean
Default value: False 1.6

By default, Cabal will first try to satisfy dependencies with the default flag value and then, if that is not possible, with the negated value. However, if the flag is manual, then the default value (which can be overridden by commandline flags) will be used.

### 3.3.2.11. Conditional Blocks¶

Conditional blocks may appear anywhere inside a library or executable section. They have to follow rather strict formatting rules. Conditional blocks must always be of the shape

if condition
property-descriptions-or-conditionals


or

if condition
property-descriptions-or-conditionals
else
property-descriptions-or-conditionals


Note that the if and the condition have to be all on the same line.

Since Cabal 2.2 conditional blocks support elif construct.

if condition1
property-descriptions-or-conditionals
elif condition2
property-descriptions-or-conditionals
else
property-descriptions-or-conditionals


#### 3.3.2.11.1. Conditions¶

Conditions can be formed using boolean tests and the boolean operators || (disjunction / logical “or”), && (conjunction / logical “and”), or ! (negation / logical “not”). The unary ! takes highest precedence, || takes lowest. Precedence levels may be overridden through the use of parentheses. For example, os(darwin) && !arch(i386) || os(freebsd) is equivalent to (os(darwin) && !(arch(i386))) || os(freebsd).

The following tests are currently supported.

os(name)
Tests if the current operating system is name. The argument is tested against System.Info.os on the target system. There is unfortunately some disagreement between Haskell implementations about the standard values of System.Info.os. Cabal canonicalises it so that in particular os(windows) works on all implementations. If the canonicalised os names match, this test evaluates to true, otherwise false. The match is case-insensitive.
arch(name)
Tests if the current architecture is name. The argument is matched against System.Info.arch on the target system. If the arch names match, this test evaluates to true, otherwise false. The match is case-insensitive.
impl(compiler)

Tests for the configured Haskell implementation. An optional version constraint may be specified (for example impl(ghc >= 6.6.1)). If the configured implementation is of the right type and matches the version constraint, then this evaluates to true, otherwise false. The match is case-insensitive.

Note that including a version constraint in an impl test causes it to check for two properties:

• The current compiler has the specified name, and
• The compiler’s version satisfied the specified version constraint

As a result, !impl(ghc >= x.y.z) is not entirely equivalent to impl(ghc < x.y.z). The test !impl(ghc >= x.y.z) checks that:

• The current compiler is not GHC, or
• The version of GHC is earlier than version x.y.z.
flag(name)
Evaluates to the current assignment of the flag of the given name. Flag names are case insensitive. Testing for flags that have not been introduced with a flag section is an error.
true
Constant value true.
false
Constant value false.

#### 3.3.2.11.2. Resolution of Conditions and Flags¶

If a package descriptions specifies configuration flags the package user can control these in several ways. If the user does not fix the value of a flag, Cabal will try to find a flag assignment in the following way.

• For each flag specified, it will assign its default value, evaluate all conditions with this flag assignment, and check if all dependencies can be satisfied. If this check succeeded, the package will be configured with those flag assignments.
• If dependencies were missing, the last flag (as by the order in which the flags were introduced in the package description) is tried with its alternative value and so on. This continues until either an assignment is found where all dependencies can be satisfied, or all possible flag assignments have been tried.

To put it another way, Cabal does a complete backtracking search to find a satisfiable package configuration. It is only the dependencies specified in the build-depends field in conditional blocks that determine if a particular flag assignment is satisfiable (build-tools are not considered). The order of the declaration and the default value of the flags determines the search order. Flags overridden on the command line fix the assignment of that flag, so no backtracking will be tried for that flag.

If no suitable flag assignment could be found, the configuration phase will fail and a list of missing dependencies will be printed. Note that this resolution process is exponential in the worst case (i.e., in the case where dependencies cannot be satisfied). There are some optimizations applied internally, but the overall complexity remains unchanged.

### 3.3.2.12. Meaning of field values when using conditionals¶

During the configuration phase, a flag assignment is chosen, all conditionals are evaluated, and the package description is combined into a flat package descriptions. If the same field both inside a conditional and outside then they are combined using the following rules.

• Boolean fields are combined using conjunction (logical “and”).

• List fields are combined by appending the inner items to the outer items, for example

other-extensions: CPP
if impl(ghc)
other-extensions: MultiParamTypeClasses


when compiled using GHC will be combined to

other-extensions: CPP, MultiParamTypeClasses


Similarly, if two conditional sections appear at the same nesting level, properties specified in the latter will come after properties specified in the former.

• All other fields must not be specified in ambiguous ways. For example

Main-is: Main.hs
if flag(useothermain)
Main-is: OtherMain.hs


if flag(useothermain)
Main-is: OtherMain.hs
else
Main-is: Main.hs


### 3.3.2.13. Common stanzas¶

common name
Since: Cabal 2.2

Starting with Cabal-2.2 it’s possible to use common build info stanzas.

common deps
build-depends: base ^>= 4.11
ghc-options: -Wall

common test-deps
build-depends: tasty ^>= 0.12.0.1

library
import: deps
exposed-modules: Foo

test-suite tests
import: deps, test-deps
type: exitcode-stdio-1.0
main-is: Tests.hs
build-depends: foo

• You can use build information fields in common stanzas.
• Common stanzas must be defined before use.
• Common stanzas can import other common stanzas.
• You can import multiple stanzas at once. Stanza names must be separated by commas.
• import must be the first field in a section. Since Cabal 3.0 imports are also allowed inside conditionals.

Note

The name import was chosen, because there is includes field.

### 3.3.2.14. Source Repositories¶

source-repository
Since: Cabal 1.6

It is often useful to be able to specify a source revision control repository for a package. Cabal lets you specifying this information in a relatively structured form which enables other tools to interpret and make effective use of the information. For example the information should be sufficient for an automatic tool to checkout the sources.

Cabal supports specifying different information for various common source control systems. Obviously not all automated tools will support all source control systems.

Cabal supports specifying repositories for different use cases. By declaring which case we mean automated tools can be more useful. There are currently two kinds defined:

• The head kind refers to the latest development branch of the package. This may be used for example to track activity of a project or as an indication to outside developers what sources to get for making new contributions.
• The this kind refers to the branch and tag of a repository that contains the sources for this version or release of a package. For most source control systems this involves specifying a tag, id or hash of some form and perhaps a branch. The purpose is to be able to reconstruct the sources corresponding to a particular package version. This might be used to indicate what sources to get if someone needs to fix a bug in an older branch that is no longer an active head branch.

You can specify one kind or the other or both. As an example here are the repositories for the Cabal library. Note that the this kind of repository specifies a tag.

source-repository head
type:     darcs

source-repository this
type:     darcs
tag:      1.6.1


The exact fields are as follows:

type: token

The name of the source control system used for this repository. The currently recognised types are:

• darcs
• git
• svn
• cvs
• mercurial (or alias hg)
• bazaar (or alias bzr)
• arch
• monotone

This field is required.

location: URL

The location of the repository. The exact form of this field depends on the repository type. For example:

• for darcs: http://code.haskell.org/foo/
• for git: git://github.com/foo/bar.git
• for CVS: anoncvs@cvs.foo.org:/cvs

This field is required.

module: token

CVS requires a named module, as each CVS server can host multiple named repositories.

This field is required for the CVS repository type and should not be used otherwise.

branch: token

Many source control systems support the notion of a branch, as a distinct concept from having repositories in separate locations. For example CVS, SVN and git use branches while for darcs uses different locations for different branches. If you need to specify a branch to identify a your repository then specify it in this field.

This field is optional.

tag: token

A tag identifies a particular state of a source repository. The tag can be used with a this repository kind to identify the state of a repository corresponding to a particular package version or release. The exact form of the tag depends on the repository type.

This field is required for the this repository kind.

subdir: directory

Some projects put the sources for multiple packages under a single source repository. This field lets you specify the relative path from the root of the repository to the top directory for the package, i.e. the directory containing the package’s .cabal file.

This field is optional. It default to empty which corresponds to the root directory of the repository.

The cabal get command allows to access a package’s source code - either by unpacking a tarball downloaded from Hackage (the default) or by checking out a working copy from the package’s source repository.

$cabal get [FLAGS] PACKAGES  The get command supports the following options: -d --destdir PATH Where to place the package source, defaults to (a subdirectory of) the current directory. -s --source-repository [head|this|…] Fork the package’s source repository using the appropriate version control system. The optional argument allows to choose a specific repository kind. --index-state [HEAD|@<unix-timestamp>|<iso8601-utc-timestamp>] Use source package index state as it existed at a previous time. Accepts unix-timestamps (e.g. @1474732068), ISO8601 UTC timestamps (e.g. 2016-09-24T17:47:48Z), or HEAD (default). This determines which package versions are available as well as which .cabal file revision is selected (unless --pristine is used). --pristine Unpack the original pristine tarball, rather than updating the .cabal file with the latest revision from the package archive. ## 3.3.3. Custom setup scripts¶ Since Cabal 1.24, custom Setup.hs are required to accurately track their dependencies by declaring them in the .cabal file rather than rely on dependencies being implicitly in scope. Please refer this article for more details. As of Cabal library version 3.0, defaultMain* variants implement support for response files. Custom Setup.hs files that do not use one of these main functions are required to implement their own support, such as by using GHC.ResponseFile.getArgsWithResponseFiles. Declaring a custom-setup stanza also enables the generation of MIN_VERSION_package_(A,B,C) CPP macros for the Setup component. custom-setup  Since: Cabal 1.24 The optional custom-setup stanza contains information needed for the compilation of custom Setup.hs scripts, custom-setup setup-depends: base >= 4.5 && < 4.11, Cabal >= 1.14 && < 1.25  setup-depends: package list Since: Cabal 1.24 The dependencies needed to compile Setup.hs. See the build-depends field for a description of the syntax expected by this field. If the field is not specified the implicit package set will be used. The package set contains packages bundled with GHC (i.e. base, bytestring) and specifically Cabal. The specific bounds are put on Cabal dependency: lower-bound is inferred from cabal-version, and the upper-bound is < 1.25. Cabal version is additionally restricted by GHC, with absolute minimum being 1.20, and for example Custom builds with GHC-8.10 require at least Cabal-3.2. ### 3.3.3.1. Backward compatibility and custom-setup¶ Versions prior to Cabal 1.24 don’t recognise custom-setup stanzas, and will behave agnostic to them (except for warning about an unknown section). Consequently, versions prior to Cabal 1.24 can’t ensure the declared dependencies setup-depends are in scope, and instead whatever is registered in the current package database environment will become eligible (and resolved by the compiler) for the Setup.hs module. The availability of the MIN_VERSION_package_(A,B,C) CPP macros inside Setup.hs scripts depends on the condition that either • a custom-setup section has been declared (or cabal v2-build is being used which injects an implicit hard-coded custom-setup stanza if it’s missing), or • GHC 8.0 or later is used (which natively injects package version CPP macros) Consequently, if you need to write backward compatible Setup.hs scripts using CPP, you should declare a custom-setup stanza and use the pattern below: {-# LANGUAGE CPP #-} import Distribution.Simple #if defined(MIN_VERSION_Cabal) -- version macros are available and can be used as usual # if MIN_VERSION_Cabal(a,b,c) -- code specific to lib:Cabal >= a.b.c # else -- code specific to lib:Cabal < a.b.c # endif #else # warning Enabling heuristic fall-back. Please upgrade cabal-install to 1.24 or later if Setup.hs fails to compile. -- package version macros not available; except for exotic environments, -- you can heuristically assume that lib:Cabal's version is correlated -- with __GLASGOW_HASKELL__, and specifically since we can assume that -- GHC < 8.0, we can assume that lib:Cabal is version 1.22 or older. #endif main = ...  The simplified (heuristic) CPP pattern shown below is useful if all you need is to distinguish Cabal < 2.0 from Cabal >= 2.0. {-# LANGUAGE CPP #-} import Distribution.Simple #if !defined(MIN_VERSION_Cabal) # define MIN_VERSION_Cabal(a,b,c) 0 #endif #if MIN_VERSION_Cabal(2,0,0) -- code for lib:Cabal >= 2.0 #else -- code for lib:Cabal < 2.0 #endif main = ...  ## 3.3.4. Autogenerated modules and includes¶ Modules that are built automatically at setup, created with a custom setup script, must appear on other-modules for the library, executable, test-suite or benchmark stanzas or also on library:exposed-modules for libraries to be used, but are not really on the package when distributed. This makes commands like sdist fail because the file is not found. These special modules must appear again on the autogen-modules field of the stanza that is using it, besides other-modules or library:exposed-modules. With this there is no need to create complex build hooks for this poweruser case. autogen-modules: module list Since: Cabal 2.0 Todo document autogen-modules field Right now executable:main-is modules are not supported on autogen-modules. Library default-language: Haskell2010 build-depends: base exposed-modules: MyLibrary MyLibHelperModule other-modules: MyLibModule autogen-modules: MyLibHelperModule Executable Exe default-language: Haskell2010 main-is: Dummy.hs build-depends: base other-modules: MyExeModule MyExeHelperModule autogen-modules: MyExeHelperModule  autogen-includes: filename list Since: Cabal 3.0 A list of header files from this package which are autogenerated (e.g. by a configure script). Autogenerated header files are not packaged by sdist command. ## 3.3.5. Accessing data files from package code¶ The placement on the target system of files listed in the data-files field varies between systems, and in some cases one can even move packages around after installation (see prefix independence). To enable packages to find these files in a portable way, Cabal generates a module called Paths_pkgname (with any hyphens in pkgname replaced by underscores) during building, so that it may be imported by modules of the package. This module defines a function getDataFileName :: FilePath -> IO FilePath  If the argument is a filename listed in the data-files field, the result is the name of the corresponding file on the system on which the program is running. Note If you decide to import the Paths_pkgname module then it must be listed in the other-modules field just like any other module in your package and on autogen-modules as the file is autogenerated. The Paths_pkgname module is not platform independent, as any other autogenerated module, so it does not get included in the source tarballs generated by sdist. The Paths_pkgname module also includes some other useful functions and values, which record the version of the package and some other directories which the package has been configured to be installed into (e.g. data files live in getDataDir): version :: Version getBinDir :: IO FilePath getLibDir :: IO FilePath getDynLibDir :: IO FilePath getDataDir :: IO FilePath getLibexecDir :: IO FilePath getSysconfDir :: IO FilePath  The actual location of all these directories can be individually overridden at runtime using environment variables of the form pkg_name_var, where pkg_name is the name of the package with all hyphens converted into underscores, and var is either bindir, libdir, dynlibdir, datadir, libexedir or sysconfdir. For example, the configured data directory for pretty-show is controlled with the pretty_show_datadir environment variable. ### 3.3.5.1. Accessing the package version¶ The aforementioned auto generated Paths_pkgname module also exports the constant version :: Version which is defined as the version of your package as specified in the version field. ## 3.3.6. System-dependent parameters¶ For some packages, especially those interfacing with C libraries, implementation details and the build procedure depend on the build environment. The build-type Configure can be used to handle many such situations. In this case, Setup.hs should be: import Distribution.Simple main = defaultMainWithHooks autoconfUserHooks  Most packages, however, would probably do better using the Simple build type and configurations. The build-type Configure differs from Simple in two ways: • The package root directory must contain a shell script called configure. The configure step will run the script. This configure script may be produced by autoconf or may be hand-written. The configure script typically discovers information about the system and records it for later steps, e.g. by generating system-dependent header files for inclusion in C source files and preprocessed Haskell source files. (Clearly this won’t work for Windows without MSYS or Cygwin: other ideas are needed.) • If the package root directory contains a file called package.buildinfo after the configuration step, subsequent steps will read it to obtain additional settings for build information fields,to be merged with the ones given in the .cabal file. In particular, this file may be generated by the configure script mentioned above, allowing these settings to vary depending on the build environment. The build information file should have the following structure: buildinfo executable: name buildinfo executable: name buildinfo where each buildinfo consists of settings of fields listed in the section on build information. The first one (if present) relates to the library, while each of the others relate to the named executable. (The names must match the package description, but you don’t have to have entries for all of them.) Neither of these files is required. If they are absent, this setup script is equivalent to defaultMain. ### 3.3.6.1. Example: Using autoconf¶ This example is for people familiar with the autoconf tools. In the X11 package, the file configure.ac contains: AC_INIT([Haskell X11 package], [1.1], [libraries@haskell.org], [X11]) # Safety check: Ensure that we are in the correct source directory. AC_CONFIG_SRCDIR([X11.cabal]) # Header file to place defines in AC_CONFIG_HEADERS([include/HsX11Config.h]) # Check for X11 include paths and libraries AC_PATH_XTRA AC_TRY_CPP([#include <X11/Xlib.h>],,[no_x=yes]) # Build the package if we found X11 stuff if test "$no_x" = yes
then BUILD_PACKAGE_BOOL=False
else BUILD_PACKAGE_BOOL=True
fi
AC_SUBST([BUILD_PACKAGE_BOOL])

AC_CONFIG_FILES([X11.buildinfo])
AC_OUTPUT


Then the setup script will run the configure script, which checks for the presence of the X11 libraries and substitutes for variables in the file X11.buildinfo.in:

buildable: @BUILD_PACKAGE_BOOL@
cc-options: @X_CFLAGS@
ld-options: @X_LIBS@


This generates a file X11.buildinfo supplying the parameters needed by later stages:

buildable: True
cc-options:  -I/usr/X11R6/include
ld-options:  -L/usr/X11R6/lib


The configure script also generates a header file include/HsX11Config.h containing C preprocessor defines recording the results of various tests. This file may be included by C source files and preprocessed Haskell source files in the package.

Note

Packages using these features will also need to list additional files such as configure, templates for .buildinfo files, files named only in .buildinfo files, header files and so on in the extra-source-files field to ensure that they are included in source distributions. They should also list files and directories generated by configure in the extra-tmp-files field to ensure that they are removed by setup clean.

Quite often the files generated by configure need to be listed somewhere in the package description (for example, in the install-includes field). However, we usually don’t want generated files to be included in the source tarball. The solution is again provided by the .buildinfo file. In the above example, the following line should be added to X11.buildinfo:

install-includes: HsX11Config.h


In this way, the generated HsX11Config.h file won’t be included in the source tarball in addition to HsX11Config.h.in, but it will be copied to the right location during the install process. Packages that use custom Setup.hs scripts can update the necessary fields programmatically instead of using the .buildinfo file.

## 3.3.7. Conditional compilation¶

Sometimes you want to write code that works with more than one version of a dependency. You can specify a range of versions for the dependency in the build-depends, but how do you then write the code that can use different versions of the API?

Haskell lets you preprocess your code using the C preprocessor (either the real C preprocessor, or cpphs). To enable this, add extensions: CPP to your package description. When using CPP, Cabal provides some pre-defined macros to let you test the version of dependent packages; for example, suppose your package works with either version 3 or version 4 of the base package, you could select the available version in your Haskell modules like this:

#if MIN_VERSION_base(4,0,0)
... code that works with base-4 ...
#else
... code that works with base-3 ...
#endif


In general, Cabal supplies a macro MIN_VERSION_package_(A,B,C) for each package depended on via build-depends. This macro is true if the actual version of the package in use is greater than or equal to A.B.C (using the conventional ordering on version numbers, which is lexicographic on the sequence, but numeric on each component, so for example 1.2.0 is greater than 1.0.3).

Since version 1.20, the MIN_TOOL_VERSION_tool family of macros lets you condition on the version of build tools used to build the program (e.g. hsc2hs).

Since version 1.24, the macro CURRENT_COMPONENT_ID, which expands to the string of the component identifier that uniquely identifies this component. Furthermore, if the package is a library, the macro CURRENT_PACKAGE_KEY records the identifier that was passed to GHC for use in symbols and for type equality.

Since version 2.0, the macro CURRENT_PACKAGE_VERSION expands to the string version number of the current package.

Cabal places the definitions of these macros into an automatically-generated header file, which is included when preprocessing Haskell source code by passing options to the C preprocessor.

Cabal also allows to detect when the source code is being used for generating documentation. The __HADDOCK_VERSION__ macro is defined only when compiling via Haddock instead of a normal Haskell compiler. The value of the __HADDOCK_VERSION__ macro is defined as A*1000 + B*10 + C, where A.B.C is the Haddock version. This can be useful for working around bugs in Haddock or generating prettier documentation in some special cases.

## 3.3.8. More complex packages¶

For packages that don’t fit the simple schemes described above, you have a few options:

• By using the build-type Custom, you can supply your own Setup.hs file, and customize the simple build infrastructure using hooks. These allow you to perform additional actions before and after each command is run, and also to specify additional preprocessors. A typical Setup.hs may look like this:

import Distribution.Simple

posthaddock args flags desc info = ....


See UserHooks in Distribution.Simple for the details, but note that this interface is experimental, and likely to change in future releases.

If you use a custom Setup.hs file you should strongly consider adding a custom-setup stanza with a custom-setup:setup-depends field to ensure that your setup script does not break with future dependency versions.

• You could delegate all the work to make, though this is unlikely to be very portable. Cabal supports this with the build-type Make and a trivial setup library Distribution.Make, which simply parses the command line arguments and invokes make. Here Setup.hs should look like this:

import Distribution.Make
main = defaultMain


The root directory of the package should contain a configure script, and, after that has run, a Makefile with a default target that builds the package, plus targets install, register, unregister, clean, dist and docs. Some options to commands are passed through as follows:

• The --with-hc-pkg, --prefix, --bindir, --libdir, --dynlibdir, --datadir, --libexecdir and --sysconfdir options to the configure command are passed on to the configure script. In addition the value of the --with-compiler option is passed in a --with-hc option and all options specified with --configure-option= are passed on.

• The --destdir option to the copy command becomes a setting of a destdir variable on the invocation of make copy. The supplied Makefile should provide a copy target, which will probably look like this:

copy :
$(MAKE) install prefix=$(destdir)/$(prefix) \ bindir=$(destdir)/$(bindir) \ libdir=$(destdir)/$(libdir) \ dynlibdir=$(destdir)/$(dynlibdir) \ datadir=$(destdir)/$(datadir) \ libexecdir=$(destdir)/$(libexecdir) \ sysconfdir=$(destdir)/$(sysconfdir) \  • Finally, with the build-type Custom, you can also write your own setup script from scratch. It must conform to the interface described in the section on building and installing packages, and you may use the Cabal library for all or part of the work. One option is to copy the source of Distribution.Simple, and alter it for your needs. Good luck. Footnotes  [1] Some packages (ab)use build-depends on old-style builds, but this has a few major drawbacks: using Nix-style builds it’s considered an error if you depend on a exe-only package via build-depends: the solver will refuse it. it may or may not place the executable on $PATH. it does not ensure the correct version of the package is installed, so you might end up overwriting versions with each other.