1. Getting Started with Haskell and Cabal¶
1.1. Installing the Haskell toolchain¶
To install the Haskell toolchain follow the ghcup instructions.
1.2. Creating a new application¶
Let’s start by creating a simple Haskell application from scratch where we’ll learn about a Haskell package’s directory structure, how to run the executable, and how to add external dependencies.
1.2.1. Initializing the application¶
Start by initialising our
myfirstapp project, these instructions work in
unix shells and PowerShell (if you’re on Windows).
$ cabal init myfirstapp -n
myfirstapp stands for the directory (or path) where the project
will reside in, if omitted,
cabal init will do its proceedings
in the directory it’s called in.
-n stands for
--non-interactive, which means that cabal will try to guess
how to set up the project for you and use the default settings, which will serve us
well for the purpose of this tutorial.
When setting up your projects in the future, you will likely want to omit
and do just
cabal init, so that cabal will interactively ask you
for the details on how the project should be set up
(while still offering reasonable defaults on every step).
Also, you can run
cabal init --help to get more info on how
cabal init can be used.
This will generate the following files:
$ tree . └── myfirstapp ├── app │ └── Main.hs ├── CHANGELOG.md └── myfirstapp.cabal
app/Main.hs is where your package’s code lives.
myfirstapp.cabal is Cabal’s metadata file which describes your package,
how it is built and its dependencies. We’ll be updating this file in a
little bit when we add an external dependency to our package.
1.2.2. Running the application¶
When we ran
cabal init myfirstapp -n above, it generated a package with a single
executable named same as the package (in this case
myfirstapp) that prints
"Hello, Haskell!" to the terminal. To run the executable enter the project’s
directory and run it, by inputting the following commands:
cd myfirstapp cabal run myfirstapp
You should see the following output in the terminal:
$ cabal run myfirstapp ... Hello, Haskell!
Notice that we didn’t need to run a build command before we ran
This is because
cabal run automatically determines if the code needs to be (re)built
before running the executable.
If you just want to build a target without running it, you can do so with
cabal build myfirstapp
1.2.3. Adding dependencies¶
Next we’ll add an external dependency to our application. Hackage is the Haskell community’s central package archive of open source software.
In our application, we’ll use a package called haskell-say to print text to the terminal with some embellishment.
If you installed
cabal a while ago but haven’t used it recently you may
need to update the package index, you can do this by running
myfirstapp.cabal file we’ll update the
build-depends attribute of
executable myfirstapp section to include
executable myfirstapp import: warnings main-is: Main.hs build-depends: base ^>=188.8.131.52, haskell-say ^>=184.108.40.206 hs-source-dirs: app default-language: Haskell2010
^>=220.127.116.11 means use version 18.104.22.168 of the library or any more recent
minor release with the same major version. To put it simply, this means
use the latest version of the library that starts with
Next we’ll update
app/Main.hs to use the
module Main where import HaskellSay (haskellSay) main :: IO () main = haskellSay "Hello, Haskell! You're using a function from another package!"
import HaskellSay (haskellSay) brings the
haskellSay function from the
HaskellSay into scope. The
HaskellSay module is defined in
haskell-say package that we added as a dependency above.
Now you can build and re-run your code to see the new output:
$ cabal run ________________________________________________________ / \ | Hello, Haskell! You're using a function from another | | package! | \____ _____________________________________________/ \ / \ / \/ _____ _____ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \-----------| \ \ \ \ \ | \ \ \ \ \---------| / / / \ / / / \ \-------| / / / ^ \ \ | / / / / \ \ \ ----| / / / / \ \ /____/ /____/ \____\
1.3. What Next?¶
Now that you know how to set up a simple Haskell package using Cabal, check out some of the resources on the Haskell website’s documentation page or read more about packages and Cabal on the introduction page.